Ranchi is the Capital of Jharkhand now is one of the oldest districts in Jharkhand since the British Era. Ranchi is also called as city of Water falls and lakes. Earlier the name of the district was Lohardaga. The old district had come into existence after the creation of the non-regulation South – West frontier in 1831-32. The name of the district has since then to changed to Ranchi in 1899..
The city witnessed a sudden surge in population after the declaration of the new state of Jharkhand was formed in 2000. Owing to the rising employment opportunities and opening of numerous regional and state level offices, banks, and FMCG companies, the city witnessed a rapid influx of employment seeking migrants. As per a study done by ASSOCHAM in late 2010, Ranchi was the highest employment generating Tier-III city in India with a share of 16.8%, followed by Managlore and Mysore.
The name Ranchi was earlier known as Rachi. The area has an agricultural locality, in between Hinoo & Harmoo river. The present Purani Ranchi was originally known as the village Archi. Ranchi was the centre of the Jharkhand movement for a separate state for the tribal regions of South Bihar, northern Orissa, Western West Bengal and the present eastern Chhattisgarh. Subarnarekha River flows by the side of the city hence is famous for it’s rivers and waterfalls.
Ranchi had a population of 846,454. Males constitute 53% of the population and females 47% and has an average literacy rate of 74%, higher than the national average of 59.5%: male literacy is 80%, and female literacy is 68%.
Geographically, Ranchi is located on southern part of the Chota Nagpur plateau which forms the eastern edge of the Deccan plateau system. The area surrounding Ranchi has been endowed with natural attractions. Main tourist Attractions in Ranchi include water falls viz Hundru Falls, Jonha Falls, Dassam falls, Panch Gagh falls, Hirni falls etc and Gonda Hill, Rock Garden, Machli Ghar, Muta Crocodile breeding centre, Birsa Jaivik Udyan, Tagore Hill, McCluskigunj, Tribal Research Institute and Museum etc. Due to it’s hilly topography it enjoys a comparatively moderate climate compared to the rest of the states and has a sub-tropical climate. Temperature ranges from maximum 39 to 20°C during summer, and minimum 20 to 2°C during winter. The annual rainfall is about 1530 mm. From June to September the rainfall level is about 1,100 mm.